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QuickFacts provides statistics for all states and counties, and for cities and towns with a population of 5, or more. Some estimates presented here come from sample data, and thus have sampling errors that may render some apparent americans dating Seattle WA between geographies statistically indistinguishable. The vintage year e.

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At the census[7] there were 1, people, households, andfamilies residing in the consolidated city-county of PhiladelphiaPennsylvania. The population density was 4, There werehousing units at an average density online dating scams Paterson 1, Of thehouseholds, The average household size was 2. The age distribution was

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Rationale : Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of and morbidity from asthma of all ethnic groups in the United States. One potential contributor to the high burden of asthma in Puerto Rican children is exposure to stress and violence.

Objectives : To examine whether exposure to stress and violence is associated with an increased risk of asthma among Puerto Rican children. Methods : This study was a population-based probability sample of children in the San Juan and Caguas metropolitan areas in Puerto Rico. Information was collected in a household survey of 1, children and their primary caretakers. Measurements and Main : The prevalence of lifetime physician-diagnosed asthma was Although stressful life events and exposure to neighborhood violence were not associated with dating an Lafayette, a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with approximately twice the odds of current asthma odd ratio [OR], 2.

Conclusions : Physical or sexual abuse is associated with high asthma morbidity among Puerto Rican children.

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To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between childhood abuse and asthma. Our findings highlight the importance of screening for asthma among victims of childhood abuse, and to be aware of the possibility of physical or sexual abuse among children with asthma. Stress and violence have been associated with asthma in children. This association has never been examined specifically in Puerto Rican children, who bear a disproportionate burden of asthma morbidity compared with other groups.

Physical or sexual abuse was associated with high asthma morbidity among children living in urban areas of Puerto Rico. These findings highlight the importance of screening for asthma among victims of childhood abuse, and vice versa. Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States, and it disproportionately affects ethnic minorities 1. Puerto Ricans have a higher prevalence of asthma and suffer more morbidity and mortality from asthma than Delaware aunties phone numbers for dating whites, blacks, and other Hispanics 23.

Among children living in the U. From toPuerto Ricans had the dating channel Detroit Michigan mortality rate due to asthma free erotic stories Huntsville AL Recent evidence suggests that Puerto Rican children living in Puerto Rico hereafter called island Puerto Rican children have an even higher prevalence of asthma than Puerto Rican children in the U.

One potential contributing factor to the high burden of asthma in Puerto Rican children is exposure to stress and violence.

Violence, abuse, and asthma in puerto rican children

This is an important avenue to explore because exposure and reaction free hookup Gainesville FL stress represent potentially modifiable risk factors for asthma in Puerto Ricans. There is evidence linking stressors such as negative life events and exposure to violence to childhood asthma 6 — Studies from Puerto Rico 11 and from U. In addition, Puerto Ricans may be more vulnerable to suffering emotional distress dating mature Ontario CA response to violence than members of other ethnic groups.

Puerto Ricans were more likely to report post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD symptoms after the September 11th attacks than members of other ethnic groups. In addition, Puerto Ricans were more dating Appleton worker to have experienced a peri-event panic attack upon hearing of the events on that date These data are particularly relevant because traumatic stress reactions to violence exposures—in addition to the exposures themselves—have been shown to predict health problems in childhood The purpose of this study was to examine whether exposure to stress and violence is associated with increased risk of asthma and allergies in a population of urban island Puerto Rican children.

We hypothesized that more severe exposures including personal victimization and abuse would have the highest likelihood of being associated with asthma and allergy outcomes.

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To our knowledge, this is the first study of the relation among life stressors, violence, and asthma in Puerto Ricans. Subject recruitment and study protocols have been described in detail elsewhere In brief, this was a prospective cohort study of randomly sampled Puerto Rican children in the standard metropolitan areas of San Juan and Caguas NJ and ranchers dating Rico.

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Participants were enrolled from July through August and interviewed annually in three waves. The current cross-sectional analysis is based on data from the 2-year follow-up interview, which had detailed questions about asthma.

The study used a multistage probability sample method. Primary sampling units were randomly selected neighborhood clusters based on Lexington KY women for dating U. Census and subsequently adjusted to the census.

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Secondary sampling units were randomly selected households within each individual flirt massage Brownsville sampling unit. In households with more than one eligible child, up to three children were randomly selected to participate. Whenever space permitted, children were interviewed separately from their parents.

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If children were judged to be in possible jeopardy from child abuse, a referral was made to local authorities. Exposure to violence in the year was assessed using children's responses to a modified version of the Exposure to Community Violence Scale The child's history of physical and sexual abuse in the year was elicited separately from parents and children using the modified Traumatic Experience Questionnaire Children completed the Stressful Life Events Scale 2021which asked about 20 major life stressors e. Information about asthma and allergy outcomes was elicited from the child's parent or primary caregiver.

The samples were weighted to represent the age and sex distribution of children in the standard metropolitan areas in Puerto Rico on the basis of the U. Weighted analyses were conducted with SUDAAN software version 8; Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC to adjust standard errors for intraclass correlations induced by multistage sampling, with children nested within households and households nested within primary sampling units. We used logistic regression to examine potential predictors of current asthma, allergies, health care use for asthma, and medication use for asthma.

Our primary exposures of interest were exposure to stressful life events, exposure to neighborhood violence, and physical or sexual abuse. Figure 1 shows the schema for enrollment dating San Francisco CA female the study. On the basis of the sampling de, 5, households were randomly selected for initial inclusion in speed dating for americans in Phoenix study during the first wave, and 5, Of these 5, households, 1, However, The chat with Merced CA ladies for free study population consisted of 1, child—parent dy.

Follow-up at 2 years was obtained on Table 1 summarizes the characteristics speed dating in Fremont thames the study population. The mean age of the children at the time of the follow-up interview was In terms of exposure to stress and violence in the year before the survey, Estimates of the lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma Weighted percentages adjusted for the age and sex distribution of the general population were similar to the unweighted percentages flirt ellensburg Killeen are presented in Table E1 in the online supplement.

Table 2 summarizes the of the bivariate unadjusted analyses of the association between the variables of interest and asthma and allergy outcomes.

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Increasing age was associated with decreased odds of current asthma, health care use for asthma, and medication use for asthma. Of note, although SES indicators income, public assistance, and maternal education were associated with decreased odds of lifetime allergic rhinitis, these indicators were not associated with any of the asthma outcomes. Finally, stressful life events analyzed as both a dichotomous and a continuous variableexposure to neighborhood violence, and caregiver perceived stress were not associated with asthma or allergies among inter racial dating Binghamton participants.

Values shown are odds ratios with confidence intervals in parentheses and corresponding Free date ideas Oklahoma values. Table 3 presents a comparison of asthma and allergy outcomes for children with and without a reported history of abuse in the year. Children with a history of abuse had higher frequencies of all outcomes of interest than those without a history of abuse.

The of multivariable analyses of the association between abuse and asthma and allergic rhinitis are shown in Table 4.

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After adjusting for relevant covariates, history of abuse was associated with an approximate doubling of the odds of current asthma, health care use for asthma, medication use for asthma, Fremont CA dating free online allergic rhinitis. There was no modification of the effect of abuse on any of the outcomes by selected variables sex, age, or parental history of asthma data not shown.

However, we had limited statistical power to detect any effect modification. In this population-based study of island Puerto Rican children, exposure to high levels of psychosocial stressors stressful life events, community violence, and child abuse and current asthma were common.


Although stressful life events and community violence were not associated with current asthma or related outcomes, a history of child abuse was associated with an approximately twofold increase in the odds of current asthma and lifetime allergic rhinitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a direct chinese dating in Detroit Mi between child abuse and asthma and asthma-related outcomes.

In contrast to our findings, several studies have shown an association between neighborhood violence and asthma.

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Among Scottish children, a stressful life event increased the risk of an asthma attack adjusted odds ratio [OR] at 4—6 wk, 2. The risk of asthma was further increased when a stressful event was superimposed on chronic exposure to life stress adjusted OR, 3.

Exposure to violence may be a specific stressor that contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma among families living in poverty 8. Among low-income children, increased exposure to community violence was associated with a higher of daytime and nighttime asthma symptoms 7.

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In a birth cohort study, violence daisy dating agency Fairfield was associated with an increased risk of wheezing at age 2—3 years One explanation for the discrepancy between our findings and those published in the literature may be the relative impact of the stressors we measured on the Puerto Rican children in this study.

Current evidence suggests that it is not simply exposure to a particular stressor but the psychological response to that stressor that predicts physical health outcomes.

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Among low-income children in Michigan, symptoms of PTSD were associated with a diagnosis of asthma In a telephone survey of patients with asthma in lower Manhattan 5 to 9 weeks after the September 11th attacks, those who experienced a peri-event panic Newport News VA sex date, had PTSD symptoms related to the attack, or nsa fun Spring Valley two or more life stressors during the year before the attack were more likely to report increased severity of asthma symptoms.

In models adjusted for SES and difficulty breathing because of smoke and debris, having two or more life stressors was associated with increased asthma severity 9. In a separate survey 6 to 9 months after the attacks, PTSD was associated with increased symptom severity, unscheduled physician visits, and emergency department visits among adults with asthma Our finding that child abuse was the only stress exposure with a ificant association to asthma is consistent with the notion that emotional distress is a mediator on the causal pathway between a stressor and adverse health outcomes, because abuse victims are at higher risk for a traumatic stress response than children who witness isolated episodes of neighborhood violence or have exposure to other stressors that may not be as traumatic as physical or sexual abuse Because our data only indicate an association, it is possible that childhood asthma preceded abuse, or vice versa.

However, it is plausible that childhood abuse increases the severity of asthma, thus leading to increased medication use and an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Puerto Rican culture itself may have protective features that contribute to the lack of association between community violence and asthma in children seen in prior studies 7.