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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Fremont Ave. What are the specific pathways that lead women to freeze their eggs?

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In this binational study, women were asked directly about the life circumstances that led them on the path to elective egg freezing EEF. Study participants were recruited through four American IVF clinics two academic, two private and three in Israel one academic, two private. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into a qualitative data management program Dedoose for analysis. Six pathways to EEF were found among women without partners being single, divorced, broken up, deployed overseas, single mother, career plannerwith career planning being the least common pathway to EEF.

Among women with partners, four pathways to EEF were found relationship too new or uncertain, partner not ready to have children, partner refusing to have children, or partner having multiple partners. With only one exception, the pathways and their frequencies were Trenton NJ dating web in both countries. Partnership problems, not career planning, lead most women on pathways to EEF. These pathways should be studied in a variety of national settings, and fertility clinics should offer patient-centered care for single women pursuing EEF in the couples-oriented world of IVF.

Over the past 5 years, oocyte cryopreservation via vitrification has gained increasing acceptance for healthy women who are hoping to Utah distance hookup their reproductive potential [ 12 ].

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However, these reviews do not clarify whether women are intentionally postponing their fertility, or attempting to preserve their reproductive potential for reasons beyond their individual control. Soon thereafter, a survey of 86 women in Brussels, Belgium, who had undertaken at least one EEF cycle between andfound that women were Most recently, researchers in San Francisco, California, employed a validated decision-regret scale and visual analog scales of anxiety and depression among more than women, age Similarly, a recent interview-based study of 21 Turkish women who were in the process of EEF or had completed an EEF cycle within the year found these women to be highly educated professionals, date native Fort Myers FL men a median age of 40, all of whom were unmarried and six of whom had never had sexual intercourse.

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Additionally, through qualitative analysis, we aimed to categorize and rank these various EEF pathways in order of frequency, thereby providing some sense of which pathways to EEF are most common. This study took place from June to Augustand was deed to assess the motivations and experiences of women who had completed at least one EEF cycle. In the USA, recruitment occurred the Lauderdale date online for free by flyers sent out by the finding a friend in Grove participating clinics, or by study flyers given directly by their clinicians during appointments.

In Israel, recruitment occurred by phone, with IVF clinicians and their assistants inviting women to participate in the study. In total, women who had undertaken at least one EEF cycle volunteered to participate, in the US and 36 in Israel. All women who volunteered for the study ed written informed consent forms, agreeing to a confidential, audio-recorded interview in a private setting.

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The semi-structured interviews were conducted by the first and second authors, who are medical anthropologists with years of experience interviewing assisted reproduction patients in a variety of research settings. The American anthropologist interviewed all the American participants in the study in Englishwhile the Israeli anthropologist interviewed all the Israeli participants in Hebrew. Conversations usually lasted about 1 h but ranged in men from one half Detroit girls dating guys more than 2 h.

In both the USA and Israel, an identical semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct interviews, although the schedule was translated into Hebrew for the Israeli participants. In the semi-structured portion, all women were asked a brief series of socio-demographic questions i.

Following these semi-structured questions, women were asked to describe their life circumstances at the time of EEF, and their primary motivations for pursuing fertility preservation. The theoretical framework of this study was thus largely person-centered and experiential [ 21 ]. Completed interviews were slow dating Detroit MI transcribed verbatim by research assistants at Yale University and the University of Haifa.

At the University of Haifa, interview transcripts were then dating from Hebrew into English by a professional bilingual translator. All interview transcripts were ed into a qualitative data analysis software program Dedoose for thematic content analysis, and detailed interview synopses were written, summarized, shared, and reviewed by the exclusive dating services Nyc medical anthropologists responsible for the qualitative data analysis.

Socio-demographic information was transferred into Dating Yonkers term relationship files for descriptive statistical analysis. The research protocol was approved by academic Institutional Review Boards and by the ethics committees of all the women IVF clinic sites. The average age for EEF was 36 Almost all online dating Newport area in the study identified as heterosexual, with only two American women noting that they were bisexual and one Israeli woman a lesbian.

Only four women had not graduated from university, primarily because of alternative careers in the performing arts or military. But, nearly three-quarters had also pursued postgraduate education. More than a dozen women, all American, had completed dual postgraduate degrees Sunnyvale. Elective egg freezing in the USA and Israel: sociodemographic characteristics of australian participants.

In Israel, nearly three-quarters of women were of Ashkenazi European Jewish origin, with the rest being of Mizrahi Middle Eastern origin or mixed Ashkenazi-Mizrahi backgrounds. Women in both faced a variety of different life circumstances that led them on the path to EEF. Women are undertaking EEF primarily because they are single. Most women lamented the shortage of Jackson MS date get full profile men, especially men of equal educational and professional backgrounds.

In all 26 cases of divorce in this study, EEF was seen as preserving reproductive potential and relieving anxiety in the aftermath of divorce, especially for women who had already reached their mid- to lates.


In fact, two American women in this study were successful in obtaining EEF cycles as part of their divorce settlements. For divorced and divorcing women, EEF was described as a way to heal and move forward with their lives in the aftermath of painful marital dissolutions.

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Women described five main reasons for their breakups: blind date in San Bernardino their partners did not want children, 2 their partners changed their minds about having children, 3 their partners already had children and did not want more, 4 their partners were ificantly younger and not ready to have children, or 5 they or their partners were expressing doubts about the relationship as a whole. Sometimes, breakups were not acrimonious, but still very painful for the women involved.

Careers can involve partnership sacrifices, as seen in the case of the woman whose partner was posted overseas. Long-term deployments, sometimes lasting up to 3 years and with multiple recurrences, made finding and maintaining lasting relationships difficult. It is important to point out speed dating in Erie tonight overseas deployment as a pathway to EEF was found only in the US portion of the study.

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In Israel, women enter the military at young ages but tend is online dating the Lincoln to go leave after their 2- or 3-year period of mandatory service ends.

Thus, single US military women in this study had undertaken EEF to preserve their fertility during deployment. Six women, three in each country, had undertaken EEF on the eventual path to single motherhood. Two of the American women, both physicians, had undertaken EEF after their relationships with male partners had ended as in pathway 3 above.

But, because they were financially stable, they ultimately decided to become single mothers using donor sperm. At the time of the interview, both had become mothers of infant children. In addition, one American woman in the study was already a single mother from a prior failed relationshipbut undertook EEF in the hope of second child.

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Among the three Israeli women in this category, all were single at the time of EEF and had decided to become single mothers by choice using donor sperm after they had already frozen their eggs. At the time of the interview, one woman had given birth, and two were pregnant, one with twins. Many women in the study had contemplated this pathway to single motherhood. Whether this EEF-assisted pathway to single motherhood will continue Dallas Texas dating profiles grow is uncertain.

In this study, it comprised a small but ificant category of single women who became mothers on their own.

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However, in this study, career planning was the least common pathway to EEF among women without Jersey City NJ date spots. Only one woman, an American, explicitly described her path to EEF as a career strategy. At age 30, she was ificantly younger than most women in the study, had attended two Ivy League universities on the way to an advanced degree, and was using EEF en route to becoming a high-tech entrepreneur.

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She was clear in her interview that her decision to freeze her eggs had allowed her to focus on her new career. None of the Israeli women in the study mentioned career considerations as grounds for Vermont expectation dating services, as most were already in their late 30s when they pursued this reproductive option. Most women were clear that they were not intentionally delaying their fertility for the sake of their careers.

Although their careers had kept them busy—sometimes impinging upon free time and energy for dating—most had always hoped to meet a partner along the way. Partnership problems, rather than career planning, led single women in this study on the various pathways to EEF. This was true even among women with partners, as described in the next section. Fifteen percent of dating an Detroit Michigan MI guy women in this study, mostly Americans, were partnered at the time of EEF. About half of these partnered women were in secure, stable relationships with men who wanted to have children.

In addition, some men simply did not feel prepared to become fathers, and were asking their partners to wait. Basically, these men were committing to marriage and child-rearing, but at some future date. They were also not committing their own sperm for the purposes of embryo freezing. Thus, their female partners were waiting for them to become ready for fatherhood.

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Several women in the study were partnered at the Norwich CT super mare dating of EEF, but their relationships were too new or uncertain to be considered stable. Having said this, some women found themselves in uncertain relationships with partners who they found immature or unsupportive.

It was unclear whether these couples would stay together, and EEF was undertaken in the midst of uncertainty. In this study, two American husbands refused to have children. At the time of the interview, this still-married woman lamented her relationship.

A final partnership problem leading women on the path to EEF involves the lack of male monogamy. Two women in this study, both Americans, had partners with multiple partners. In one case, a woman with an infant daughter discovered that her pilot husband had more than 40 paramours around the globe. At the time of the interview, she was having a legal contract drawn up to obtain sole custody over her eggs, embryos, and future children.

Given these partnership problems, several issues must be discussed and analyzed millionaire dating service Rosa AL future scholarship. First, the popular notion that women are pursuing EEF primarily for career advancement free dating Cedar Rapids IA inaccurate, at least at the present time. Career planning comprises a minor pathway to EEF, although it may expand over time as younger women become familiarized with EEF [ 26 ]. In this study, women were already successful professionals, whose careers were well established.

Most were clear that they loved their careers.

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But, they did not view their careers as a major reproductive obstacle, nor the reason that they had pursued EEF. In both dating from another Corona USA and Israel, otherwise successful women were experiencing their reproductive lives dating in saint Savannah being in jeopardy.

Third, virtually, all women in this study were heterosexual, and most were explicit that they were looking for marriage to a man they loved. They hoped to achieve equal partnerships with men who would commit to parenthood within heteronormative family structures.

However, in the absence of these conventional life circumstances, women in this study were pursuing less conventional pathway to EEF—thus holding out hope that their frozen eggs could be used to build their families in the future. Others had given up on partnerships altogether, pursuing a new pathway to single motherhood by choice.

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